Online course “Internet Measurements: a Hands-on Introduction”

March 30th, 2016 by kc claffy

We just learned our colleagues Timur Friedman (UPMC) and Renata Teixeira (INRIA) and Timur Friedman (UPMC) are teaching a new course: “Internet Measurements: a Hands-on Introduction.” The course will be available from May 23rd to June 19th, 2016 on the platform France Université Numérique (FUN).

fun_mooc_screenshot

This free online course, taught in English, will cover internet measurement basics including network topology and routes; connectivity, losses, latency, and geolocation; bandwidth; and traffic measurements; with hands-on exercises on PlanetLab Europe.
Students of this course will ideally have a level of understanding of internet technology that comes from an advanced undergraduate course or a first Masters course in networking, or equivalent professional experience.

fun_mooc_screenshot2

Registration and details available at https://www.fun-mooc.fr/courses/inria/41011/session01/about

1st CAIDA BGP Hackathon brings students and community experts together

February 18th, 2016 by Josh Polterock

We set out to conduct a social experiment of sorts, to host a hackathon to hack streaming BGP data. We had no idea we would get such an enthusiastic reaction from the community and that we would reach capacity. We were pleasantly surprised at the response to our invitations when 25 experts came to interact with 50 researchers and practitioners (30 of whom were graduate students). We felt honored to have participants from 15 countries around the world and experts from companies such as Cisco, Comcast, Google, Facebook and NTT, who came to share their knowledge and to help guide and assist our challenge teams.

Having so many domain experts from so many institutions and companies with deep technical understanding of the BGP ecosystem together in one room greatly increased the kinetic potential for what we might accomplish over the course of our two days.

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So, you want to draw the Internet?

February 6th, 2016 by Bradley Huffaker

When visualizing the Internet, one can consider several different levels of abstraction, including the Internet Protocal (IP) address, router, and Autonomous System (AS) levels. IP addresses identify interfaces on devices that connect to the Internet. Routers are devices that route traffic by accepting it on one interface and forwarding it out another interface. (Routers may have many interfaces.) An Autonomous Systems (AS) is a set of IP addresses operated under a single administrative umbrella. The three granularities are illustrated below:

Internet level Abstraction

Most Internet mapping methods have focused on characterizing and modeling network structure at the level of interconnected Autonomous Systems (ASes). We have developed different ways to annotate ASes, using a variety of available datasets, to support visualizations of AS topology:
three-views.

I gave a class lecture at UCSD in January 2016 on visualizing Internet AS topology. I also prepared a supplemental data set to facilitate student exploration and experimentation. Comments and feedback welcome!

CAIDA BGP Hackathon 2016 Attendees

January 13th, 2016 by Josh Polterock

We are pleased to post the attendees list for the upcoming CAIDA BGP Hackathon 2016 organized jointly with Colorado State University, University of Southern California, University of Waikato, the Route Views Project, RIPE NCC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and FORTH. We look forward to hosting over 80 attendees — including more than 20 domain experts — from over 50 organizations who will come from around the world to participate in the first CAIDA BGP Hackathon at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at UC San Diego in La Jolla, CA. The hackathon is sponsored by industry, professional organizations, and government agencies, with interest in promoting the development of tools to model, measure, and monitor the routing infrastructure of the Internet. This support allowed us to to provide 33 travel grants.

Due to the overwhelming interest in the hackathon, we have reached capacity. We are no longer accepting applications for this year’s hackathon.

We would like to give special thanks to our sponsors.

  • ACM SIGCOMM
  • Cisco
  • Comcast
  • Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
  • Google NetOps and Google Open Source Research Group
  • The Internet Society (ISOC)
  • National Science Foundation (NSF)
  • San Diego Supercomputer Center

Please send any questions or media inquiries regarding the hackathon to bgp-hackathon-info at caida dot org.

Report from the 2nd NDN Community Meeting (NDNcomm 2015)

November 10th, 2015 by kc claffy

The report for the Second NDN Community Meeting (NDNcomm 2015) is available online now. The meeting, held at UCLA in Los Angeles, California on September 28-29, 2015, provided a platform for attendees from 63 institutions across 13 countries to exchange recent NDN research and development results, to debate existing and proposed functionality in NDN forwarding, routing, and security, and to provide feedback to the NDN architecture design evolution.

[The workshop was partially supported by the National Science Foundation CNS-1345286, CNS-1345318, and CNS-1457074. We thank the NDNcomm Program Committee members for their effort of putting together an excellent program. We thank all participants for their insights and feedback at the workshop.]

CAIDA releases the August 2015 Internet Topology Data Kit (ITDK 2015-08)

November 6th, 2015 by Josh Polterock

Nothing feels better than publishing fresh data for the research community, especially when fresh brings new features. Today, CAIDA released the August 2015 version of our popular Internet Topology Data Kit (ITDK) that includes topologies for both IPv4 and IPv6. CAIDA’s ITDK provides researchers with data that describes connectivity and routing observations gathered from a large cross-section of the global Internet. This dataset enables the study of the topology of the IPv4 and IPv6 Internet at the router-level with inferences for assignments of routers to Autonomous Systems (AS). The August 2015 release of the ITDK includes two related IPv4 router-level topologies; an IPv6 router-level topology; assignments of routers to ASes; geographic locations of each router; and Domain Name Service (DNS) lookups of all observed IP addresses.

We produce the ITDKs from active measurements conducted on our Archipelago (Ark) measurement infrastructure. This release made use of 94 Ark monitors located in 36 countries to produce the IPv4 topologies and 26 monitors located in 15 countries for the IPv6 topology.

CAIDA restricts access to recent ITDKs less than two years old. CAIDA provides unrestricted public access to ITDKs older than two years.

For complete details about the ITDK collection process, data files and formats, data availability, and more, please see Macroscopic Internet Topology Data Kit (ITDK).

Recent papers on policy

October 21st, 2015 by kc claffy

We recently posted two papers on policy that are worth highlighting:

Anchoring policy development around stable points: an approach to regulating the co-evolving ICT ecosystem, published in Telecommunications Policy, Aug 2015.

Abstract:

The daunting pace of innovation in the information and communications technology (ICT) landscape, a landscape of technology and business structure, is a well-known but under-appreciated reality. In contrast, the rate of policy and regulatory innovation is much slower, partly due to its inherently more deliberative character. We describe this disparity in terms of the natural rates of change in different parts of the ecosystem, and examine why it has impeded attempts to impose effective regulation on the telecommunications industry. We explain why a recent movement to reduce this disparity by increasing the pace of regulation – adaptive regulation – faces five obstacles that may hinder its feasibility in the ICT ecosystem. As a means to achieve more sustainable regulatory frameworks for ICT industries, we introduce an approach based on finding stable points in the system architecture. We explore the origin and role of these stable points in a rapidly evolving system, and argue that they can provide a means to support development of policies, including adaptive regulation approaches, that are more likely to survive the rapid pace of evolution in technology.

Full paper available on the CAIDA website.
Accompanying slides are also available.

Adding Enhanced Services to the Internet: Lessons from History
Presented at the Telecommunications Policy Research Conference (TPRC), Sep 2015.

Abstract:

We revisit the last 35 years of history related to the design and specification of Quality of Service (QoS) on the Internet, in hopes of offering some clarity to the current debates around service differentiation. We describe the continual failure to get QoS capabilities deployed on the public Internet, including the technical challenges of the 1980s and 1990s, the market-oriented (business) challenges of the 1990s and 2000s, and recent regulatory challenges. Our historical perspective draws on, among other things, our own work from the 1990s that offered proposals for supporting enhanced services using the Internet Protocol (IP) suite, and our attempts to engage both industry and policymakers in understanding the dynamics of the Internet ecosystem. In short, the engineering community successfully developed protocols and mechanisms to implement enhanced services (QoS), and a few individual service providers have deployed them internally or in trusted two-party scenarios. The long-standing failure has been to deploy this capability across the public Internet.

We reflect on lessons learned from the history of this failure, the resulting tensions and risks, and their implications for the future of Internet infrastructure regulation. First, the continued failure of QoS over the last three decades derives from political and economic (business) obstacles as well as technical obstacles. The competitive nature of the industry, and a long history of anti-trust regulation (at least in the U.S.) conflicts with the need for competing providers to agree on protocols that require sharing operational data with each other to parameterize and verify committed service qualities. Second, QoS technology can yield benefits as well as harms, so policymaking should focus on harms rather than mechanisms. To assure the benefit to consumers, regulators may need to require transparency about the state of congestion and provisioning on networks using such mechanisms. Third, using QoE as the basis for any regulation will require research, tools and capabilities to measure, quantify, and characterize QoE, and developing metrics of service quality that better reflect our understanding of QoS and QoE for a range of applications. Finally, profound shifts in interconnection arrangements suggest a reshaping of the debate over QoS on the public Internet. Some access networks are interconnecting their private IP-based network platforms to support enhanced services, and using this interconnected platform to vertically integrate infrastructure and applications. Access networks are also connecting directly to large content providers to minimize the risk of performance impairments. These changes trigger new regulatory concerns over the fate of the public Internet, including capital investment incentives and gaps across different bodies of law.

Barriers to the deployment of scalable interprovider QoS may be unsurmountable, but since any Internet of the future will face them, it is worth developing a systematic understanding to the challenge of enhanced services, and documenting successes and failures over the history of the Internet as carefully as possible.

Full paper available on the CAIDA website.

DHS S&T DDoS Defense PI Meeting

August 31st, 2015 by kc claffy

Earlier this month, Marina and I went to our first Principal Investigators meeting for a new DHS program on distributed denial of service defense (DDoS Defense), lead by DHS S&T Cybersecurity Division Program Manager Dan Massey. Dan is one of Doug Maughan’s team, and he seems to have picked up Doug’s impressive talent for running effective meetings. I presented these slides on our new spoofer project, a collaboration with Dr. Matthew Luckie, now a senior lecturer at U. Waikato, and Rob Beverly at NPS.

CAIDA’s Annual Report for 2014

July 22nd, 2015 by kc claffy

[Executive Summary from our annual report for 2014:]

This annual report covers CAIDA’s activities in 2014, summarizing highlights from our research, infrastructure, data-sharing and outreach activities. Our research projects span Internet topology, routing, traffic, security and stability, future Internet architecture, economics and policy. Our infrastructure activities support measurement-based Internet studies, both at CAIDA and around the world, with focus on the health and integrity of the global Internet ecosystem.
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Panel on Cyberwarfare and Cyberattacks at 9th Circuit Judicial Conference

July 20th, 2015 by kc claffy

I had the honor of contributing to a panel on “Cyberwarfare and cyberattacks: protecting ourselves within existing limitations” at this year’s 9th Circuit Judicial Conference. The panel moderator was Hon. Thomas M. Hardiman, and the other panelists were Professor Peter Cowhey, of UCSD’s School of Global Policy and Strategy, and Professor and Lt. Col. Shane R. Reeves of West Point Academy. Lt. Col. Reeves gave a brief primer on the framework of the Law of Armed Conflict, distinguished an act of cyberwar from a cyberattack, and described the implications for political and legal constraints on governmental and private sector responses. Professor Cowhey followed with a perspective on how economic forces also constrain cybersecurity preparedness and response, drawing comparisons with other industries for which the cost of security technology is perceived to exceed its benefit by those who must invest in its deployment. I used a visualization of an Internet-wide cybersecurity event to illustrate technical, economic, and legal dimensions of the ecosystem that render the fundamental vulnerabilities of today’s Internet infrastructure so persistent and pernicious. A few people said I talked too fast for them to understand all the points I was trying to make, so I thought I should post the notes I used during my panel remarks. (My remarks borrowed heavily from Dan Geer’s two essays: Cybersecurity and National Policy (2010), and his more recent Cybersecurity as Realpolitik (video), both of which I highly recommend.) After explaining the basic concept of a botnet, I showed a video derived from CAIDA’s analysis of a botnet scanning the entire IPv4 address space (discovered and comprehensively analyzed by Alberto Dainotti and Alistair King). I gave a (too) quick rundown of the technological, economic, and legal circumstances of the Internet ecosystem that facilitate the deployment of botnets and other threats to networked critical infrastructure.
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